Lephalale Municipality is named after the local river, a tributary of the Limpopo River, which has been the source of life to the people of this area from time immemorial. Before the new dispensation, this Municipality was called Ellisras; derived from the combination of surnames of two Afrikaners, Patric Ellis and Piet Erasmus, who settled in this area in the 1930s.
This Municipality is situated in the northwestern part of Limpopo Province and it borders Thabazimbi, Modimolle, Mogalakwena and Blouberg Municipalities. It is a gateway to Botswana as it borders Botswana to the west with four international border posts: Stockpoort, Groblersbrug, Zanzibar and Platjan.
Economically, Lephalale Municipality is dominated by electricity generation, which is represented by the largest direct dry-cooling power station in the world, Matimba, which started in 1981 as well as Medupi power station which is a Greenfields coal-fired power plant which will also utilise dry-cooling.
Lephalale Municipality is a predominantly rural Municipality with 38 villages, two townships (Marapong and Onverwacht), and one town (Lephalale).